Georgy Aleksandr Tovstonogov ( September 15 , 1915 , Tiflis - May 23, 1989 , Leningrad ) - Soviet theater director and teacher. The main director of the Leningrad Komsomol Leningrad Theater (1950-1956) and the Bolshoi Drama Theater (1956-1989). People's Artist of the USSR (1957). Hero of Socialist Labor (1983). Laureate of Lenin (1958), two Stalin (1950, 1952) and two State Prizes of the USSR (1968, 1978).
|Birth name||Georgy Alexandrovich Tovstonogov|
|Date of Birth|
|Place of Birth||Tiflis , Tiflis province , Russia|
|Date of death|
|Place of death||Leningrad , RSFSR , USSR|
theater director , theater teacher
|Years of activity||1933 - 1989|
|Theater|| Bolshoi Drama Theater , |
Leningrad Komsomol Theater
According to official figures, Georgy Tovstonogov was born in Tiflis in the Tiflis province of the Russian Empire (now Tbilisi , Georgia ). However, according to the testimony of the director’s younger sister, Natela Tovstonogova , he was born in St. Petersburg , where the family lived on Furshtatskaya Street and only in 1919 moved to Tiflis  . Father - Russian, hereditary nobleman Alexander Andreevich Tolstonogov (1889-1941) (who changed his name at the insistence of his wife  ), a railway engineer, a senior official of the Ministry of Railways of the Russian Empire . Mother - Georgian Tamara Grigoryevna Papitashvili (1881-1970), a singer who studied at the St. Petersburg Conservatory  .
In 1931, upon admission to the directing department of GITIS, Tovstonogov corrected his date of birth in the documents, added two years to himself, in order to correspond to the age qualification of applicants. Since then, throughout his life, officially, his year of birth was considered the 1913th, round dates for awarding the highest awards were counted from this year, and they were celebrated twice - officially and unofficially  .
At 15, George graduated from high school  . As a schoolboy, he spent a lot of time in the theater, the actor of which was his uncle. After graduation, he entered the Tbilisi Railway Institute, where his father headed the department  , but soon realized that his calling was a theater.
He began his acting career in 1931 as an actor and assistant director in the Tbilisi Russian Youth Theater , whose artistic director was the founder of the Children's Theater in Georgia Nikolai Marshak  .
In the same year he entered the directing department of GITIS , where his teachers were Andrei Lobanov and Alexey Popov ; at the same time, he continued to work in the Tbilisi Youth Theater, where he staged at least one new performance every year, debuting in 1933 with the staging of the Proposal  .
In 1937, his father was repressed as a Japanese spy and George, as "the son of an enemy of the people", was expelled from the fourth year. A few months later it was restored (it is believed that after Stalin uttered the phrase "the son is not responsible for his father")  . After graduating from GITIS from 1938 to 1946, he worked as a director at the Tbilisi Russian Drama Theater named after A.S. Griboedov . In 1939, the head of the Tbilisi Theater Institute Akaki Khorava , who greatly appreciated the 24-year-old director, provided him with the leadership of the acting course  , where he proved to be an outstanding teacher.
In 1946, for personal reasons, left Tbilisi and moved to Moscow. He was the artistic director of the Touring Realistic Theater (1946-1948) and the director of the Central Children's Theater (1946-1949). At the same time, he staged performances in other theaters in Moscow, as well as in the Russian Drama Theater in Alma-Ata .
In 1949 he moved to Leningrad to work as a director of the Lenin Komsomol Leningrad Theater , and a year later he was appointed chief director of the theater. It was here that he gained name and recognition. He released about four plays per season, working almost simultaneously on several plays. His works became events in the theatrical life of the country. The most successful was the performance of the Optimistic Tragedy , which he staged in 1955 on the stage of the Leningrad Drama Theater named after A. Pushkin , for which Tovstonogov was awarded the Lenin Prize in 1958. The performance impressed not only the theater audience at home and abroad, but also the party leadership: being shown to the delegates of the XX Congress of the CPSU , he played an important role in the new appointment of the director  .
In early 1956, he was invited to become the main director of the Bolshoi Drama Theater (BDT). At that time, the theater was going through a difficult period, it was one of the outsiders of the Leningrad theater life  : from 1949 to 1956 it was replaced by four main directors, in the season of 1953-1954 it was led by a directing board, the staff was bloated and uncontrollable, repertoire policy - ill-conceived. All this led to the fact that in the mid-1950s the attendance of the Bolshoi Drama Theater fell and significant financial debt formed, which threatened the theater with closure  . As the head of the literary department, Dina Schwartz , who came along with Tovstonogov from the Leningrad Lenkom, recalled,
“... For seven years this theater was practically without a real leader. That they did a college. They invited a wonderful person, director Konstantin Pavlovich Khokhlov , who was already old and sick. They ate it. There was a very evil troupe, there were a lot of them. For seven years, everyone who was not lazy came to this theater ... "  .
Tovstonogov did not immediately accept the proposal to head the BDT. However, at the insistence of the Leningrad party authorities in charge of the theaters  on February 13, 1956, he nevertheless took office to save the “first proletarian theater”. He was granted broad powers. For the administrative reorganization, the director of the BDT was appointed George Korkin . “He was cruel, he was merciless. He could reorganize everything, fire all those who needed. And he ran to Georgy Alexandrovich every day ”  . At his first meeting with the Tovstonogov troupe, he said: “I am inedible! Remember this: inedible! ”And, announcing his program, he dismissed about a third of the troupe - more than thirty actors  . For thirty-three years, he led the BDT, making it the "first stage of the country"  . In the history of the theater, this era was called the "golden". “Tovstonogov,” wrote Pavel Markov in 1976, “occupies a special and extremely significant place in our theatrical life. You can’t get around it with deliberate inattention, you won’t deny its determining, firmly fixed influence on the Soviet theater ”  . Anatoly Smelyansky , recalling one of his program performances - Five Evenings , noted:
“The simple Volodin history of Tovstonogov set historical breath. Perhaps this was generally the strongest side of his direction. His talent was an epic warehouse, his performances were not in vain called stage novels. For any play, whether it be a classic or a modern drama, he knew how to see a huge piece of life, which served as the source of this play. And then the signs on paper were filled with stunning “accidents” and discoveries, which were also obtained, as it were, from the inside of the play itself, without the open breaking of its structure. Directorial reception as a demonstration of his ingenuity Tovstonogov despised. He did not like the word “concept”, he preferred another word - “clue” ”  .
Pavel Markov testified to the same thing: “The Tovstonogov Theater is devoid of the slightest shade of sensationalism ... Success confirms that the theater is at the very point of the country's social and artistic interests”  .
He also put on many Tovstonogov in other domestic and foreign theaters (Finland, Germany, Bulgaria, Poland and other countries).
In 1958, he began teaching at the Leningrad Institute of Theater, Music and Cinematography (professor since 1960), since 1970 he headed the department of directing. He brought up several generations of theater directors. He showed what a powerful creative principle lies in the Stanislavsky system , which in the second half of the 20th century he developed and enriched with his searches. Including developed and put into practice the method of effective analysis .
He also worked on television. In addition to more than a dozen television shows staged in 1957-1989 both by himself and with other directors under his direction, he shot the television movie Thunder on Platanov Street (1961) and recorded the radio play Fidelity (1961) based on the play by Olga Berggolz [ 15] .
He wrote two important books on the theory and practice of directorial work for Russian theater culture - “On the profession of the director” and “Circle of thoughts”. In 1957 he was invited to the editorial board of the journal " Theater ".
In 1964 he was elected Deputy Chairman of the Presidium of the All-Russian Theater Society (WTO).
Member of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR 7-8 convocations.
In 1966, he signed an open letter from scientists, writers, and artists to Leonid Brezhnev against the rehabilitation of Joseph Stalin  .
On May 23, 1989, the Bolshoi Theater hosted a dress rehearsal of the play “ Visit of the Old Lady ”. Having appointed the day of the premiere, Georgy Tovstonogov said goodbye to the actors, got behind the wheel of his car and went home.
Georgy Tovstonogov died of a heart attack while driving, having time to brake on Suvorov Square . He was buried in Leningrad in the Necropolis of art masters in the Tikhvin cemetery of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra .
- Sister - Natela Aleksandrovna Tovstonogova (1926-2013), theater figure. As she said, she devoted her life to caring for her husband and brother and raising children and grandchildren, her and her brother  .
- The sister’s husband is Evgeny Alekseevich Lebedev (1917-1997), actor and teacher. People's Artist of the USSR (1968).
- The first wife (1943-1945) - Salome Alexandrovna Kancheli (1921-1985), actress. People's Artist of the Georgian SSR (1967). After the divorce, the sons remained on the education of Tovstonogov  .
- Son - Alexander Georgievich Tovstonogov (1944-2002), theater director.
- Grandson - George (1975-2012), theater director.
- Grandson - Vasily.
- Grandson - Arseny.
- Son - Nikolai Georgievich Tovstonogov (born 1945), lives in Israel  .
- Son - Alexander Georgievich Tovstonogov (1944-2002), theater director.
- The second wife (1958-1962) - Inna Mikhailovna Kondratieva (1924-1985), actress. Honored Artist of the RSFSR (1957)  .
- Son (illegitimate) - Vadim Georgievich Milkov (b. 1950), an opera director, worked at the BDT with his father on the play "Tarelkin's Death"   . His mother is Maria Vasilievna Milkova (1924-1983), an actress.
- Granddaughter - Maria Milkova.
Most Important Performances
- Leningrad Komsomol Theater
- 1949 - “From the spark ...” Sh. N. Dadiani
- 1951 - “The Road of Immortality” by V. G. Bragin and G. A. Tovstonogov based on the book by J. Fuchik “ Report with a noose around his neck ”. The performance was staged together with A. G. Rakhlenko
- Leningrad Bolshoi Drama Theater named after M. Gorky
- 1957 - Aesop by G. Figueiredo
- 1957 - The Idiot by F. M. Dostoevsky . Composition by D. M. Schwartz and G. A. Tovstonogov
- 1959 - “ Barbarians ” by M. Gorky
- 1959 - “ Five Evenings ” by A. M. Volodin
- 1962 - “ Woe from Wit ” by A. S. Griboedov
- 1964 - “ Virgin Soil Upturned ” by M. A. Sholokhov . Staged by P. Dyomin
- 1965 - “ Three Sisters ” by A.P. Chekhov .
- 1965 - The Roman Comedy by L. G. Zorin . Artist S. S. Mandel (the performance was prohibited at the stage of dress rehearsal)
- 1966 - " Petty Bourgeois " by M. Gorky
- 1969 - " King Henry IV " by W. Shakespeare . Literary composition of V. E. Receptor .
- 1972 - The Examiner by N.V. Gogol .
- 1972 - " Hanuma " by A. A. Tsagareli
- 1974 - “Three bags of weed wheat” by V. F. Tendryakov
- 1974 - "Energetic people" by V. M. Shukshin .
- 1975 - “ The Story of a Horse ” according to the story by L. N. Tolstoy “Canvas meter” . Staged by M. G. Rozovsky .
- 1983 - The Death of Tarelkin . Opera-farce A. N. Kolker based on the comedy A. V. Sukhovo-Kobylin .
- 1985 - “ For every sage of rather simplicity ” by A. N. Ostrovsky .
- 1987 - “ At the bottom ” by M. Gorky
- Other theaters
- 1955 - The Optimistic Tragedy V. Vishnevsky . Academic Drama Theater named after A.S. Pushkin , Leningrad.
- 1973 - “Balalaikin and Co.” by S. V. Mikhalkov based on the novel “ Modern Idyll ” by M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin . The Sovremennik Theater, Moscow.
- “Modernity in a modern theater. Conversations about directing. " - (L .: Art , 1962)
- "On the profession of director." - (Moscow: WTO Publishing House, 1965)
- “Circle of thoughts: Articles. Director's comments. Recordings of rehearsals. " - (L .: Art, 1972)
- “Classics and Modernity” (Moscow: Soviet Russia , 1975),
- "Mirror of the scene" [In 2 books.]. - (L .: Art, 1980)
- “Conversations with colleagues” (an attempt to comprehend the director's experience). - M .: STD of the RSFSR, 1988.
- "Conversations about the profession" of transcripts of lectures at the I — III course of directors of the drama theater, 1982-1985 / G. A. Tovstonogov, A. I. Katsman; [comp. L. V. Gracheva]. - S.-P.: Publishing House St. Petersburg State. Acad. Theater Arts: A Blank Slate, 2015. - ISBN 978-5-88689-107-2
- 1965 - Today - premiere (documentary)
- 1967 - Theater Spring (documentary)
- 1967 - Yuri Tolubeev (documentary)
- 1969 - Next to a friend (documentary)
- 1972 - First of all - theater (opening remarks) (documentary)
- 1975 - Arkady Raikin (documentary)
- 1976 - Evgeny Alekseevich Lebedev (documentary)
- 1981 - A word about the theater (documentary)
- 1983 - G. Tovstonogov. The stage and the hall ... (documentary)
- 1983 - At the directorial lessons of G. A. Tovstonogov (documentary)
- 1988 - Live, think, feel, love ... (documentary)
Awards and titles
- Hero of Socialist Labor (1983)
- Honored Artist of the Georgian SSR (1943)
- People's Artist of the RSFSR (1956)
- People's Artist of the USSR (1957)
- People's Artist of the Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
- Honored Artist of the Uzbek SSR
- People's Artist of the Georgian SSR
- Stalin Prize of the first degree (1950) - for staging the play "From the spark ..." Sh. N. Dadiani
- Stalin Prize of the third degree (1952) - for staging the play “The Road of Immortality” by G. A. Tovstonogov and V. G. Bragin
- Lenin Prize (1958) - for staging the play “Optimistic Tragedy” by V.V. Vishnevsky
- USSR State Prize (1968) - for staging the play "Philistines" by M. Gorky
- USSR State Prize (1978) - for staging the play “Quiet Flows the Don” by M. A. Sholokhov
- State Prize of the RSFSR named after K. S. Stanislavsky (1986) - for staging the performances of the Russian classical repertoire
- Three Orders of Lenin (1967, 1973, 1983)
- Order of the Red Banner of Labor (1957)
- Medal “For Valiant Labor. In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the birth of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin "
- Medal "For Valiant Labor in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945."
- Medal “In memory of the 250th anniversary of Leningrad” (1957)
- Gold medal of A. D. Popov (1981) - for the creation of the plays “Optimistic tragedy”, “Quiet Don”, “Ocean”, “Re-reading”.
- Doctor of Arts (1968)
- Corresponding Member of the Academy of Arts of the GDR (1983)
- Honorary Citizen of Tbilisi (1983)
- The Bolshoi Drama Theater , which Georgy Tovstonogov directed the last 33 years of his life, was named after him in 1992. In September 2015, in honor of the centenary of the director, his memorial bust was installed in the foyer of the theater  .
- His name is given to the square near the house where the director lived. In 2011, a monument to Tovstonogov (sculptor Ivan Korneev ) was unveiled in the park. A memorial plaque was opened on the house where he lived ( Petrovskaya nab ., D. No. 4).
- In Tbilisi there is a street named after him , on the house number 9, where he lived, a memorial plaque was installed  .
- The asteroid - 4880 Tovstonogov , discovered in 1975 by astronomers of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, is named after the director.
- In 2015, in honor of the centenary of the director, the Boeing 737 VQ-BWD  of Aeroflot Airlines  was named after Georgy Tovstonogov.
- Staroselskaya, 2004 , p. 16-17.
- Staroselskaya, 2004 , p. 17-18.
- Gorfunkel E. Teaching lessons of Georgy Tovstonogov . Memory page . Bolshoi Drama Theater (official site). Date of treatment November 5, 2012. Archived November 19, 2012.
- Interview with Natela Tovstonogova in Rossiyskaya Gazeta
- N. Ya. Marshak in the Theater Encyclopedia
- Theater of his dictatorship (inaccessible link) . Date of treatment April 23, 2007. Archived April 23, 2007.
- Honorary Citizen
- Staroselskaya, 2004 , p. 133-137.
- G. A. Tovstonogov on the BDT website
- Staroselskaya, 2004 , p. 140.
- Cit. By: Staroselskaya, 2004 , p. 138
- Staroselskaya, 2004 , p. 138.
- Smelyansky, 1999 , p. 53.
- Markov P. A. About Tovstonogov // About the theater . - M .: Art , 1977. - T. 4. Theatrical critic's diary: 1930-1976. - S. 542. - 639 p.
- Staroselskaya, 2004 , p. 402-405.
- Letters from science and culture workers against the rehabilitation of Stalin
- Interview with Natella Tovstonogova . Date of treatment January 14, 2013. Archived January 14, 2013.
- Staroselskaya, 2004 , p. 59, 63–65.
- Staroselskaya, 2004 , p. 176.
- Vadim Milkov: “It’s not scary to work in the provinces, it’s scary to get sick with provincialism” - “Saratov View” newspaper
- New business news / Vadim Milkov pays tribute to Volgograd cultural figures
- A memorial bust of Georgy Tovstonogov Was installed in the BDT . gov.spb.ru. Date of treatment September 28, 2015.
- Fates of crossing in Tiflis - Tovstonogov, Lebedev, Basilashvili
- VQ-BWD Aeroflot - Russian Airlines Boeing 737-800 - cn 41211/5516 (English) . www.planespotters.net. Date of appeal May 15, 2017.
- Aircraft named after George Tovstonogov took to the skies (Government of St. Petersburg).
- Benyash R. M. G. Tovstonogov. - L. — M .: Art, 1961.
- Rybakov Yu. S. G. A. Tovstonogov: Problems of directing . L .: Art, 1977.143 s.
- Staroselskaya N. D. Tovstonogov. - M .: Young Guard, 2004 .-- 416 p. - ISBN 5-235-02680-2 .
- Premieres of Tovstonogov / Compiled by E. Gorfunkel. - M .: Artist. Producer. Theater, 1994 .-- 368 p. - ISBN 5-87334-006-4 .
- Malochevskaya I.B. Director's school of Tovstonogov. - St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg Academy of Theater Arts, 2003. - S. 160. - ISBN 5-88689-010-6 .
- Smelyansky A. M. Suggested circumstances. From the life of Russian theater of the second half of the XX century . - M .: Artist. Producer. Theater, 1999 .-- 351 p. - ISBN 5-87334-038-2 .
- Stroeva M.N. Soviet Theater and Traditions of Russian Director: Modern Director's Searches. 1955-1970. - M .: All-Russian Research Institute of Art Studies. The sector of the theater, 1986. - 323 p.
- Varlamova A.P. Actors BDT // Russian acting art of the XX century. Vol. II and III. - St. Petersburg, 2002. - S. 65-104 .
- George Tovstonogov. Collective portrait. - Memories. Publications Letters. - SPb. : The Baltic Seasons, 2006.
- Georgy Tovstonogov rehearses and teaches / Literary record S. M. Losev . - SPb. : The Baltic Seasons, 2007.
- Gorfunkel E.I. Directing Tovstonogov. St. Petersburg: Levsha Publishing House. St. Petersburg, 2015.528 p.
- “To live, think, feel, love” (1988), film by E. Makarov
- “Demiurge”, director Tigran Mutafyan
- “ My silver ball. Georgy Tovstonogov ", a film by Vitaly Wulf
- “Georgy Tovstonogov” (2006), from the DTV television series “How the Idols Left”
- “At the director’s lessons of Professor Tovstanogov.” Scriptwriters I. Malochevskaya, D. Schwartz, director M. Kligman.
- Tovstonogov, Georgy Aleksandrovich . Site " Heroes of the country ".
- Tovstonogov, Georgy Aleksandrovich // Encyclopedia " Around the World ."
- Georgy Alexandrovich Tovstonogov on funeral-spb.narod.ru
- How G. A. Tovstonogov reformed the Bolshoi Drama Theater (BDT)
- Personnel Policy of Georgy Alexandrovich Tovstonogov
- Georgy Tovstonogov: The theater begins with the truth. The Horizon Magazine (No. 1, 1969)
- George Tovstonogov. Recent Thoughts (Our Heritage No. 5 (11) 1989)